A Biographical Timeline

Jacob Dinezon, 1913

Jacob Dinezon, 1913

1851

Jacob Dinezon is born in Nay Zhager (New Zhager), Lithuania near Kovno. (Some say 1852, others say 1856. The Yiddish newspaper, Haynt (Today) of August 1919 says 1851, the year we use here.)

Young Jacob grows up in a comfortable Jewish household with a doting mother and a father who is often away on business. He has two older sisters and a younger brother who dies in early childhood.

1863

Dinezon enters the yeshiva at age twelve.

1866

Dinezon’s father dies and he is sent to live with an uncle in the city of Mohilev (Mogilev) near the Dnieper River.

Jacob Dinezon Postcard

Jacob Dinezon Postcard

Dinezon is enrolled in a prestigious Jewish school that embraces the spirit of the haskole (Haskalah/Jewish Enlightenment). He learns Russian, German, mathematics, world history, and science.

1867

At sixteen, Dinezon lives and studies with Sh. Zuckerman, whose library includes Enlightenment literature in Hebrew.

1868

Dinezon enters the employ of a wealthy and prominent family in Mohilev named Horowitz. Starting as a Hebrew tutor, he is soon promoted to bookkeeper, and then to manager of the family business.

He becomes a trusted member of the Horowitz household and Bodana Horowitz, the family matriarch, becomes a second mother to him.

dinezon-yungerman

Jacob Dinezon, 1906

The Horowitz home is a gathering place for disaffected young people struggling to breakaway from the restrictive customs of traditional Jewish religious life, including an insular worldview, ridged gender roles, and arranged marriages. Here Dinezon finds poignant and emotional material for his future novels.

During this period, Dinezon falls in love with one of the Horowitz’s daughters who he is tutoring. He escorts her in travels to foreign lands to study music, yet is never able to reveal his true feelings.

The relationship ends sadly when at the request of the family, Dinezon must travel to Vilne to make arrangements for the girl’s marriage to another.

1876

Dinezon begins publishing articles in Hebrew newspapers, and publishes scholarly brochures on scientific subjects including “Thunder and Lightening” and “Rain and Snow.”

1877

Heading to Vilne with an introduction from Bodana Horowitz to her sister Devorah Romm, head of the famed Widow and Brothers Romm publishing company, Dinezon meets Yiddish writer, Isaac Meyer Dik, who assists him with the sale of his first novel, Beoven avos (For the Sins of the Fathers) for twenty-three rubles. Due to censorship, the manuscript is never published and ultimately lost.

To replace the censored book, the Widow and Brothers Romm publishes Dinezon’s Ha’neahovim vha’neimim, oder Der shvartser yungermantshik (The Beloved and Pleasant, or The Dark Young Man).

Sholem Abramovitsh

Sholem Abramovitsh

This same year Dinezon moves to Moscow where he works at a tea company for one of his relatives. While there he learns that The Dark Young Man has been published. The novel quickly becomes a great sensation with the first ten thousand copies selling out quickly and several reprints to follow. About this first book it is said that for many years the names of the characters were household words as though people actually knew them.

While in Moscow, Dinezon learns that his literary hero, the Hebrew writer, Sholem Abramovitsh, is using the pen name Mendele Moykher Sforim (Mendele the Book Seller) for the works he is writing in Yiddish. When Dinezon asks why Abramovitsh would use a pseudonym, the informant replies, “Would you wear your Sabbath coat to the shop on weekdays?”

1878

Yet in spite of the great success of The Dark Young Man with the general public, Dinezon is disappointed by the negative critical response the book receives from the Enlightenment press because it is written in Yiddish and not Hebrew. He is also distressed and furious by the sudden appearance of opportunistic Yiddish writers and their shamefully imitative works. In response, Dinezon ceases to publish for the next ten years.

1885

Dinezon settles in Warsaw to be closer to his sister and her family. His small attic apartment becomes a focal point for the city’s Jewish literary circle, and Dinezon becomes a mentor and advisor to fledgling Yiddish writers.

Sholem Aleichem Portrait

Sholem Aleichem

1888

While visiting Kiev, Dinezon is arrested and jailed for several hours until his identity is verified and papers have been approved.

This same year, Sholem Aleichem comes to Dinezon’s small apartment to discuss his plan to publish a Jewish literary anthology. Also present are David Frishman and Samuel Zitron. Sholem Aleichem’s goal, he says, is to elevate Yiddish literature.

Dinezon may have corresponded with I. L. Peretz at this time to inform him of Sholem Aleichem’s new venture. Peretz, whose law practice had collapsed following his disbarment by the Czarist authorities, sends Sholem Aleichem a long poem entitled, “Monish.” Sholem Aleichem publishes the poem but severely edits it without first informing Peretz. This will become the basis of a feud that will last for years.

When Dinezon reads “Monish” in Sholem Aleichem’s Di yidishe folks-bibliotek (The Jewish People’s Library), he corresponds with Peretz to express his enthusiasm for Peretz’s writing.

1889

Peretz moves to Warsaw where he finally meets Dinezon. They become inseparable friends.

Perhaps through Peretz’s encouragement, Dinezon begins to publish again. His book Even negef, oder a shtein in veg (A Stumbling Block in the Path) is published in Vilna.

Early I. L. Peretz Postcard

I. L. Peretz

1890

Dinezon pays for the publication of Peretz’s first book of Yiddish stories, Bekante bilder (Familiar Pictures), a collection of three short stories, “The Messenger,” “What Is A Soul?” and “The Mad Talmudist.”

Dinezon intends Bakante bilder to be the first in a series of books in a “penny library” that will bring Jewish readers stories of substance in Yiddish (called “zhargon”—jargon—at the time.)

This same year Sholem Aleichem must cease publication of Di yidishe folks-bibliotek after suffering major losses from the Russian stock market crash.

1891

Dinezon’s book, Hershele, is published.

In partnership, Dinezon and Peretz begin publishing their own literary anthology, Di yidishe bibliotek (The Jewish Library), which runs until 1894. The name infuriates Sholem Aleichem.

With anti-Semitism growing in Russia and Russian-controlled lands and increasing deportments of Jews to the Pale of Settlement, Dinezon and Peretz make plans to settle in Argentina where thousands of Eastern European Jews are emigrating. Their intention is to start a daily Jewish newspaper, but their plans fall through.

Dinezon, Peretz, and Abramovitsh

Dinezon, Peretz, and Abramovitsh

1894

Peretz and Dinezon begin publishing Yontef bletlekh (Holiday Pages) to creatively get around the Czarist ban on Jewish newspapers. Between 1894 and 1896 they publish seventeen issues.

1897

Dinezon writes an angry article that is critical of the German historian and biblical scholar Henrich Graetz for refusing to allow his monumental history of the Jews to be translated into Yiddish. Dinezon’s response is a powerful defense of Russian Jewry and the Yiddish language.

1899

Dinezon’s book, Yosele, is published in Warsaw.

Peretz is arrested while speaking at a Jewish labor workers’ meeting and is imprisoned for three months in the Tenth Pavilion of the Warsaw Citadel. When Peretz is released he is seriously malnourished and ill.

I. L. Peretz and Jacob Dinezon standing together

I. L. Peretz and Jacob Dinezon

1901

Dinezon spearheads a three-day celebration in Warsaw to celebrate I. L. Peretz’s fiftieth birthday and twenty-fifth year as a writer. To celebrate the event, Dinezon publishes a volume of Peretz’s collected works.

During the celebration, a delegation from the Arbeter Bund (The Jewish Workers Union) presents Peretz with a written proclamation and gift: a book of Peretz’s stories that has been used by Jewish political prisoners to send secret messages to each other in the Warsaw Citadel. Peretz keeps the book as a prized possession, but Dinezon burns the proclamation to destroy any evidence of Peretz’s association with the outlawed Jewish workers party.

1902

Peretz suffers a near-fatal heart attack and is sent to the resort town of Marienbad, Germany to recuperate.

Sholem Abramovitsh (Mendele) and Jacob Dinezon

Sholem Abramovitsh (Mendele) and Jacob Dinezon

1904

Dinezon continues to provide stories to Yiddish newspapers. His novella, Alter, appears in a supplement to Der fraynd (The Friend).

1905

The Czarist government lifts the ban against Yiddish theatre. Peretz begins writing plays and Dinezon works to bring Yiddish theatre to Warsaw.

Dinezon’s Der krizis (The Crisis: A Story of the Lives of Merchants) is published.

1908

Peretz and Dinezon sign the invitation urging participation in the “Conference for the Yiddish Language” that is held in Czernowitz. Though Dinezon does not attend, Peretz addresses the conference, which seeks to elevate Yiddish to a modern, national language for the Jewish people.

Jacob Dinezon and Sholem Aleichem sitting together

Jacob Dinezon and Sholem Aleichem

1909

In celebration of Sholem Aleichem’s fiftieth birthday, Dinezon organizes an effort  to buy back Sholem Aleichem’s copyrights from the original publishers. The return of these copyrights allows Sholem Aleichem to earn much needed income  from the republication of his stories.

1914

World War I begins. Dinezon, again in partnership with Peretz, helps found the Home for Jewish Children, an orphanage to care for the many displaced children arriving in Warsaw from the Russian-German war zone.

In Dinezon’s Warsaw apartment, Sholem Aleichem and Peretz finally end their feud and make plans to conduct a lecture tour in America.

dinezon-peretz-bedside

Jacob Dinezon at Peretz’s bedside

1915

On April 3rd, during Passover, Peretz dies of a heart attack in Warsaw. Dinezon sits as a shomer (watchman) until his friend’s body is removed from the apartment. One hundred thousand mourners turn out for Peretz’s funeral.

1916

With Peretz gone, Dinezon turns his attention and support to the Yiddish secular schools movement in Poland.

On May 13th, Sholem Aleichem dies in America. One hundred thousand mourners line the streets of New York City for his funeral.

Jacob Dinezon Postcard

Jacob Dinezon Postcard

1917

In the same year as the Russian Revolution, Dinezon’s friend Sholem Abramovitsh dies in Odessa.

1919

Surrounded by family and friends, Jacob Dinezon dies in his Warsaw apartment on August 29.

In a show of solidarity, Jewish mourners from all walks of life come out in the tens of thousands to express their grief on the day of his funeral. His final wish is fulfilled when he is buried beside his friend Peretz in the Okopowa Street Jewish Cemetery.